Gwendolyn B. King (White House Central Files: Staff Member and Office Files)

Date Start
Date End

The Presidential historical materials of Gwendolyn B. King are in the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration under the provisions of Title I of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974 (44 U.S.C. 2111 note) and implementing regulations. In accordance with the act and regulations, archivists reviewed the file group to identify personal and private materials (including materials outside the date span covered by the act) as well as nonhistorical items. These materials have been returned to the individual who has primary proprietary interest.

Materials covered by the Act have been archivally processed and are described in this register. Items which are security classified or otherwise restricted under the act and regulations have been removed and placed in a closed file. A Document Withdrawal Record (GSA Form 7279 or NA Form 14021) with a description of each restricted document has been inserted at the beginning of each folder from which materials have been removed. A Document Control Record marks the original position of the withdrawn item. Employees of the National Archives will review periodically the unclassified portions of closed materials for the purpose of opening those which no longer require restriction. Certain classified documents may be declassified under authority of Executive Order 13526 in response to a Mandatory Review Request (NA Form 14020) submitted by the researcher.

  • Linear feet of materials:   6.6
  • Approximate number of pages:   5,280
Biographical Note


October 27, 1915 Born, Hartsville, South Carolina as Mabel Gwendolyn Bair; later changed name to Gwendolyn Mabel Bair

1932-1936 B.A., Coker College, Hartsville, South Carolina

1936-1937 Strayer Business College, Washington, D.C.

1937 Catholic University, Washington, D.C.

1937 Married to LaBruce W. King

1937-1942 Administrative Assistant to Librarian & Junior Librarian's Assistant, Library of Congress

1942 Farm Credit Administration, Kansas City, Missouri

1942-1953 Housewife

1953- Clerk-Stenographer, Office of Examining Branch, Army Board of Correction of Military Records, Office of the Secretary of the Army, Washington, D.C.

1953-1969 Assistant to the Appointments Secretary, White House; along with other short-term positions

1969-1974 Director of Correspondence for Mrs. Nixon

1974-1976 Volunteer on Mrs. Ford's staff

1976- Public speaker and active in community activities, Santa Rosa, California


April 16, 1950 Born, Dayton, Ohio as Cynthia Ann Vanden Heuvel

1968-1970 Attended Westminster College, London, England & the London division of the University of Maryland

1968-1969, 1970 Switchboard operator, Arlington, Virginia

1969-1970 Cashier, Douglas House, London, England

1970 Correspondence Clerk, White House

1970-1974 Stenographer/Typist, Office of Gwen King, White House (Personal secretary to the Eisenhowers and Coxes)

Scope and Content Note

The Gwendolyn B. King file group documents the activities of the First Lady's correspondence office from 1969 to 1974. The office was responsible for answering all mail received by Mrs. Nixon, Julie and David Eisenhower, and Tricia and Edward Cox. Mail addressed to the President and Mrs. Nixon was also handled by this office.

Letters went out over the signature of Mrs. Nixon or Gwen King, depending on the nature of the incoming correspondence and the type of response decided upon. Aside from those drafted by Mrs. King, herself, letters were drafted by other members of the office, including Belinda Baltzell, Mary Austermiller, Diane Carroll and Nancy Nathan. Carbons drafted by these women have been segregated in the Correspondence File series.

The nature and volume of incoming mail often allowed the White House response to be in the form of an individually tailored form letter. Examples of these were kept for future reference, and are filed as Form Responses, alphabetically, by subject treated. In addition, the Correspondence office distributed photographs, recipes and engraved greeting cards when these items were requested.

Much of the research that went into answering First Family mail was done by staff members, or was solicited from appropriate Federal Departments and agencies, as well as rom other White House offices.

A large segment of outgoing correspondence, answers to invitations sent to First Family members, is located in the Appointments Office files of Susan A. Porter.

One staff member under Mrs. King, Cynthia A. ("Cindy") Vanden Heuvel, evolved into a sort of personal secretary to the Eisenhowers and Coxes. Her records were segregated as the "Girl's Office". The nature of this sub-office was similar to that of the larger Correspondence Office. Letters were signed by members of the First Family and by Miss Vanden Heuvel. After the "CVH" Chronological File, the major subseries is the Wedding File, which provides background information on Julie's and Tricia's weddings. Most of the material dealing with the Nixon-Eisenhower marriage, however, has been withdrawn and returned to Mrs. Nixon since the event occurred before President Nixon assumed office. There are also binders of Form Responses, General Information, and Gift Logs for the Eisenhowers and Coxes present in this subseries.

Related Staff Member and Office Files collections that should be consulted include the files of Susan A. Porter, Helen M. Smith, Lucy A. Winchester and the White House Social Files. Taped exit interviews with Constance C. Stuart, Penelope A. Adams, William R. Codus and notes from an interview with Coral F. Schmid will also prove informative. In addition, an oral history program is in progress which includes former members of the First Lady's staff.

The extensive photographic, film and video collection contained in the Nixon presidential materials has much material documenting the activities of the First Lady. Also available are audio recordings of Mrs. Nixon and Constance Stuart, taped by the White House Communications Agency.

Series Description

Boxes:   1-6
Series:   Chronological File
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Composed predominantly of carbons of outgoing correspondence from Mrs. Nixon and Gwen King. There are also some letters from Connie Stuart and other members of the First Lady's staff. Arrangement is chronological. Following the main body of carbons, 1971-1974, there are segregated segments of letters drafted by various staff members, including Belinda Baltzell (1972-1973), Mary Austermiller (1973-1974), Diane Carroll (1972-1973) and Nancy Nathan (1973-1974). These are also arranged chronologically.

Boxes:   7
Series:   Subject File
Spans:   1969-1974
Description:   Includes biographical information, printed material, fact sheets, quotations by President Nixon, etc., and used as background for answering First Family correspondence. Arrangement is alphabetical by key word indicated. If the key word does not begin the folder title, it has been underlined.

Boxes:   8-10
Series:   Form Responses
Spans:   1969-1970
Description:   Copies of outgoing correspondence used as forms for producing responses to similar requests received. There is also some background material included in the file. Arrangement is alphabetical by key word. If the key word does not begin the folder title, it has been underlined.

Boxes:   11
Series:   Cards & Recipes
Spans:   [1969-1974?]
Description:   Representative copies of cards sent by the President and Mrs. Nixon to people celebrating birthdays, wedding anniversaries and other special events. Also included are printed recipes distributed by the White House upon request.

Boxes:   12
Series:   Photographs
Spans:   [1969-1974?]
Description:   Binder containing copies of official White House photos distributed to the public upon request.

Boxes:   13
Series:   Publications
Spans:   1971-1972
Description:   Books and booklets probably used as reference aids in answering mail. Subjects include Revenue-Sharing proposals and volunteer and environmental programs.


Boxes:   14-17
Series:   Chronological File
Spans:   1969-1974
Description:   Primarily carbons of outgoing correspondence of Vanden Heuvel, Tricia Cox (with a few Edward Cox), Julie Eisenhower and David Eisenhower. Arranged by principle and thereunder chronologically. The various folders of "Trip Letters" are basically lists of persons to receive thank you's and photos in connection with their help during a particular trip made by Julie or Tricia.

Boxes:   18
Series:   Subject File
Spans:   1968-1973
Description:   Includes Wedding Files of Julie and Tricia Nixon, providing background on the preparations for the ceremony and related events. Composed mostly of press releases and fact sheets. Most of the material for the Nixon-Eisenhower wedding has been withdrawn and returned because it is pre-Presidential. Other subjects include photographs, official calendars for Tricia and Edward Cox and Julie Eisenhower (1971-1973), staff memos, and an editorial sent to the New York Times by Tricia Cox. Arrangement is alphabetical by key word. If the key word does not begin the folder title, it has been underlined.

Boxes:   19
Series:   Form Responses
Spans:   [1969-1974?]
Description:   Examples of form letters for answering mail received by Julie and Tricia.

Boxes:   20
Series:   Miscellany
Spans:   1969-1974
Description:   Includes a Correspondence Count of incoming letters for Julie & David Eisenhower and Tricia & Edward Cox, 6/1973-8/1974; General Information on the First Family, including biographical sheets, form responses, a transcript of an interview with Tricia Cox, etc.; Gift Log for the First Daughters, 1969-1970, which lists Date received, Donor, Description, and Disposition.

Folder Title List

Series I: Chronological File, 1971-1974

Box 1

Gwen King Carbon File October, November, December 1971
Gwen King Carbon File January, February, March 1972
Gwen King Carbons April, May, June 1972
Gwen King Carbons July, August 1972
Gwen King--Sept. 1972
Gwen King--October, 1972

Box 2

Gwen King--November, 1972
Gwen King--December, 1972
Gwen King--January, 1973
Gwen King--February, 1973
Gwen King--March, 1973

Box 3

Gwen King--April, 1973
Gwen King--May, 1973
Gwen King--June, 1973
Gwen King--July, 1973
Gwen King--August, 1973
Gwen King--September, 1973

Box 4

Gwen King--October, 1973
Gwen King--November, 1973
December, 1973
Gwen King--January, 1974
Gwen King--February, 1974
Gwen King--March, 1974
Gwen King--April, 1974
Gwen King--May, 1974

Box 5

Gwen King--June, 1974
Gwen King--July, 1974
Gwen King--August, 1974
[Belinda Baltzell Carbons, February 1972-March 1973]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, March-June 1973]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, July-August 1973]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, September-October 1973]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, November-December 1973]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, January-February 1974]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, March-April 1974]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, May-June 1974]
[Mary Austermiller Carbons, July-August 1974]

Box 6

[Diane Carroll Carbons, 1972]
[Diane Carroll Carbons, January-March 1973]
[Diane Carroll Carbons, April 1973]
[Diane Carroll Carbons, May 1973]
[Diane Carroll Carbons, June 1973]
[Diane Carroll Carbons, July 1973]
[Nancy Nathan Carbons, December 1973-March 1974]
PN All PNs [Nancy Nathan Carbons, January-March 1974]
Connie Stuart Letters

Series II: Subject File, 1969-1974

Box 7

[African Trip--First Monday, 2/7/72] [Periodical]
[Biographical Sheets on Mrs. Nixon]
[Campaign Material, 1972]
Comments: On Being First Lady
[Community Service--"First Lady on Community Service"] [Article]
[Cox, Tricia (Nixon)--Biographical Sheet]
[Day Care Centers Visit, October 10, 1969--Fact Sheet]
Dog Photos and Information
[Easter Egg Roll Certificate, 1974]
["Editorial Comment"--Editorials on Mrs. Nixon]
[Eisenhower, Julie (Nixon)--Biographical Sheet]
Julie Poem To Her Father--Age 8
Mrs. Nixon's Equal Rights Statement
PN Genealogy & Much RMN
[Honorary Affiliations List]
'68 [ie. '69] Inaugural Gown & Costume
[Inaugural Guide, 1973] [Booklet]
Inaugural Invitations
Legacy of Parks
[Nixon, Richard M.--Biographical Material]
[Nixon, Richard M.--Press Releases On Foreign Trips & 1973 Inaugural]
[Nixon, Richard M.--Quotations On Various Subjects] [Binder] [1 of 3] [A-G]
[Nixon, Richard M.--Quotations On Various Subjects] [Binder] [2 of 3] [H-P]
[Nixon, Richard M.--Quotations On Various Subjects] [Binder] [3 of 3] [Q-Z]
["Peru Report," 9/1/70]
[Projects And Activities--Information Packet]
Visits to Schools for Deaf
[Volunteer File--"The Power Of A Woman"]
Volunteer Interview

Series III: Form Responses, 1969-1970

Box 8

[Memos Re: Files In This Series]
Active Efforts
Acupuncture, China
Recommendation of Artists/Portrait Painting/Individual creations
Campaign & Election/Inauguration
Children's Letters/School projects/Education
Requests For Clothing/Requests For Miscellaneous Items
Used Clothing, Quilts
Creative Endeavors
Employment/Jobs/Funds And/Or Money
Requests--Employment And Offers Of Help For Staff Positions
Energy & Resultant Problems
Financial Assistance
American Flag
General, Miscellaneous
Gift Offers/Items For Sale
Gifts--Other Offers
Health [EMPTY]
Housing Problems
Illness, Sympathy
Inaugural Gown
Issues [I]
Issues [II]

Box 9

Gwen King 6, 6+ Etc
Requests for Loans, Financial Assistance
Mail (All First Family)
Meeting Requests/Special Tours
Mis./Ideas/Suggestions [1 of 2]
Mis./Ideas/Suggestions [2 of 2]
Requests for Miscellaneous Assistance
Requests For Mementos, Etc./Requests For Personal Items/ Requests for Items Belonging To The Federal Government
Pat Nixon’s
Misc. Info. On P[at]N[ixon]
P[at]N[ixon]'s Life And Genealogy
Office Memos & Useful Info.
Pen Pals
Inquiries Re Personal Information
Personal Problems/Jobs
Requests For Photographs/Requests For Invitations As Souvenirs, Menus, Programs, Etc.

Box 10

Proclamation Requests
Promotions, Endorsements, Contributions [NO] Condemnations
Regrets All Types
Religious/Bible, Prayers
Religious Literature sent In/Mrs. Nixon's Favorite Hymn, Prayer, Etc./General Religious Matters
Miscellaneous Requests/Queries
Returns/$/Stuff/Etc./Referrals V.A., F.B.I., Citizenship
President's Safety
Senior Citizens
Request for National Holidays, Commissions, Special Action, Etc.
Special Requests (Soil, Etc.)
Volunteerism (Day Care, Etc. [Club Activities])
White House
White House Info, Guides, Photos
Living White House/WH Hist. Assoc. Etc./WH Info

Series IV: Cards & Recipes, [1969-1974?]

Box 11

[Baby--Birth & Adoption]
[Bar Mitzvah/Bas Mitzvah]
[Birthday Greetings Received]
[Birthday Greetings Sent]
[Signature Cards]
[Support & Encouragement]
[Wedding Anniversary--Received]
[Wedding Anniversary--Sent]
[Soups & Salads]

Series V: Photographs, [1969-1974?]

Box 12

Official Photographs Distributed To Public Upon Request [Binder]

Series VI: Publications, 1971-1972

Box 13

"The Budget Message Of The President, 1972" [Booklet]
"Building For Tomorrow... President Nixon's Plan for Urban Community Development Revenue Sharing" [Booklet]
The Clearest Choice [Book]
College Volunteers: A Guide To Action: Helping Students to Help Others [Book]
"The President Greets Young Americans" [Booklet] The President's 1971 Environmental Program [Book]
"Republican Platform: A Better Future For All" [Booklet]
"The Right To Learn: President Nixon's Proposal For Education Revenue Sharing" [Booklet]
"'Rural Americans Deserve A Full Share in the Nation's Prosperity and Growth--': President- Nixon's Plan for Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing" [Booklet]
"Unsnarling the American Traffic Jam: President Nixon's Plan For Transportation Revenue sharing" [Booklet]
"'The Wave of Crime Will Not Be The Wave Of The Future--': President Nixon's Proposal For Law Enforcement Revenue Sharing" [Booklet]

Cindy Vanden Heuvel's Files

Series VII: Chronological File, 1969-1974

Box 14

[Letters to Mr. & Mrs. Peter Koldra, 1969-73] 1971
January, 1972 & February, 1972
April, May, June, July, March 1972
[August 1972]
September, 1972
October, 1972
November, 1972
December, 1972
January 1973
February 1973
March 1973
September 1973
[Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1974]
CVB Letters for March 1972
CVB Letters for April [1972]
CVB Letters for May 1972
Cindy VB Letters (June) 1972
Cindy VB Letters July 1972
CVH--March Letters 1973
CVH--Apri1 1973
CVH--June Letters 1973

Box 15

CVH--Ju1y Letters 1973
CVH--August Letters 1973
September--CVH 1973
October--CVH 1973
CVH Nov 1973
CVH--Dec. 1973
CVH--Jan. 1974
CVH--Feb. 1974
CVH--March 1974
CVH--Apri1 1974
CVH--Apri1, 1974 [sic]
CVH--May 1974
CVH--June 1974
CVH--Ju1y 1974
Tricia Cox Letters--Ju1y, 1971
Tricia Letters--March and April [1972]
March [1972] Trip Letters--Tricia
April [1972] Trip Letters--Tricia
Tricia--May [1972] Letters
May [1972] Trip Letters--Tricia
June [1972] Letters--Tricia
June Trip Letters--Tricia 1972
Tricia--Ju1y [1972] Letters
Tricia August Letters 1972
August Trip Letters--Tricia 1972
Tricia--September [1972?] Letters [EMPTY]
September [1972] Trip Letters--Tricia
Tricia--October [1972?] Letters [EMPTY]
October Trip Letters--Tricia 1972
Tricia—November [1972?] Letters [EMPTY]

Box 16

TNC--March [1973] Letters
TNC April [1973] Letters
TNC--June [1973] Letters
TNC--July [1973] Letters
TNC--August [1973] Letters
TNC--Oct. 1973
TNC--Jan. 1974
TNC--Feb. 1974 [EMPTY]
TNC--March 1974
TNC--Apri1 1974 [EMPTY]
TNC--May 1974
TNC--June 1974
Tricia Nixon Cox--Private
Julie and David Letters--June [1971]
February Trip Letters--Ju1ie 1972
Julie Letters--March and April 1972
March Trip Letters--Julie 1972
April Trip Letters--Julie 1972
Julie--May 1972
May Trip Letters--Julie 1972
June Letters--Julie 1972
June Trip Letters--Julie 1972
Julie--July Letters 1972
July Trip Letters--Julie 1972
Julie--1972 August Letters
August Trip Letters--Julie 1972
September Trip Letters--Julie 1972
October Trip Letters--Julie 1972
November Trip Letters--Ju1ie 1972 [EMPTY]
JNE--March Letters 1973
JNE--Apri1 [1973] Letters
JNE--May [1973] Letters
JNE--June [1973] Letters
JNE--July [1973] Letters
JNE--August [1973] Letters
September [1973]--JNE
[JNE]--October 1973

Box 17

JNE--Nov 1973 (1 through 20)
JNE--21 Nov. 1973
JNE--Dec. 1973
JNE--Jan. 1974
JNE--Feb. 1974
JNE March 1974
Julie--Apri1, 1974
JNE--May 1974
JNE June 1974
JNE--July 1974
JNE--August 1974
DDE--March [1973] Letters
DDE--Apri1 [1973] Letters
DDE--June [1973] Letters
DDE--Ju1y [1973] Letters
DDE Letters [August-October 1973]
Nov 1973 DDE
DDE--Dec. 1973
DDE--Feb. 1974 [EMPTY]
DDE--May 1974

Series VIII: Subject File, 1968-1973
Sub-Series A: Wedding File

Box 18

Julie's Wedding Announcement [WITHDRAWN AND RETURNED]
JNE Bridal Gown
Julie's Gifts To Bridesmaids [WITHDRAWN AND RETURNED]
JNE-DDE wedding Gifts [EMPTY]
JNE-DDE Misc. (Recipe, Etc.)
Description of the Plaza
JNE-DDE Description of Reception [EMPTY]
Julie's Wedding
Tricia's Attendants
Attendants Dresses
Tricia's Gifts To Her Attendants
Edward's Biographies
Tricia's Biographies
Cake Description and Reception WH
Tricia's Wedding Cake Photograph
Wedding Ceremony and Music
China, Crystal and Silver
Old Customs
Gifts to Attendants (Ed Dinner & Gifts, Also)
Diplomatic Reception
Mrs. Nixon's and Mrs. Coxes Dresses
Engagement Announcement
Flower--Tree Decorations
Gazebo--Path & Order of Wedding Party
Tricia and Edward Gazebo Wedding Photograph [EMPTY]
Bridal Gown
Groom's Clothes
Ed's Groomsmen & Best Man
Guests (Procedure)
Historical Information
Interview with Tricia 3/17/71
Dr. [Edward G.] Latch's Biography
East Room Music
Music: Rose Garden, Dipl. Rec. Rm., East Rm.
[New York News Coloroto Magazine, June 20, 1971]
Orchestra--Bill Harrington
Edward Cox--Single Photograph [EMPTY]
Tricia--Single Photographs' [EMPTY]
Tricia and Edward's Official Photograph [EMPTY]
Tricia and Edward Wedding Photographs [EMPTY]
Secy. State & Mrs. Rogers' Reception
Tricia's Misc. Recipes--Not printed [EMPTY]
Rehearsal Dinner
Rose Garden Decorations
Wedding Service
Bridal Shower--Mrs. Agnew

Sub-Series B: Miscellaneous File

(Calaroza Terrace, Portland, Oregon--Edward Cox Visit] [Photographs]
[Guadalupe Mountains National Park Dedication—Julie Nixon Eisenhower Visit] [Photographs]
Mrs. Nixon's Inaugural Gown [And Inaugural prayer]
[Inaugural] Reception at White House--Guests
Memorandum & Odds & Ends
[Tea set Exhibition]

Series IX: Form Responses, [1969-1974?]

Box 19

JE & Tricia [Form Responses] [Binder]
[Form Responses] [Binder]

Series X: Miscellany, 1969-1974

Box 20

[Correspondence Count, June 1973-August 1974] [Binder] [Folder 1 of 2]
[Correspondence Count, June 1973- August 1974] [Binder] [Folder 2 of 2]
[General Information on First Family] [Binder]
[Gift Log for Tricia Nixon and Julie & David Eisenhower] [Binder] [Folder 1 of 2]
[Gift Log for Tricia Nixon and Julie & David Eisenhower] [Binder] [Folder 2 of 2]
[The White House Record Library] [Book]