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Anne L. Armstrong

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The Presidential historical materials of Anne L. Armstrong are in the custody of the National Archives and Records Administration under the provisions of Title I of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974 (44 U.S.C. 2111 note), and implementing regulations. In accordance with the act and regulations, archivists reviewed the file group to identify private or personal as well as non-historical items. Such items, if found, have been withdrawn for return to the individual with primary proprietary or commemorative interest in them.

Materials covered by the act have been archivally processed and are described in this register. Items that are security classified or otherwise restricted under the act and regulations have been removed and placed in a closed file. A Document Withdrawal Record (NA Form 14021) marks the original position of the withdrawn items. Employees of the National Archives will review periodically the unclassified portions of closed materials for the purpose of opening those which no longer require restriction. Certain classified documents may be reviewed for declassification under authority of Executive Order 13526 in response to a Mandatory Review Request (NA Form 14020) submitted by the researcher.

  • Linear feet of materials:  31.2
  • Approximate number of pages:  60,000

Biographical Note

Anne Legendre Armstrong

December 27, 1927 Born, New Orleans, La.

1949 Graduated Vassar College

1950 Married Tobin Armstrong

1964-1984 Delegate, Republican National Convention

1968-1973 Member, Republican National Committee from Texas

1971-1973 Co-Chairman, Republican National Committee

1973-1974 Counsellor to President Richard Nixon, Counsellor to President Gerald Ford

1976-1977 United States Ambassador to Great Britain and Northern Ireland

1978- Board of Regents, Smithsonian Institution

1978- Board of Overseers, Hoover Institution

1979 Republican Woman of the Year Award

1980 Co-Chairman, Reagan-Bush Campaign

1981-1990 Chairman, President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board

1981 Texan of the Year Award

1985 Chairman, Blair House Restoration Fund

1986 Named to Texas Women's Hall of Fame

1987 Presidential Medal of Freedom Award

1987- Chairman, board of trustees for The Center for Strategic and International Studies

Scope and Content Note

The materials of Anne Armstrong, Counsellor to the President, reflect her responsibilities as the first head of the Office of Women's programs, and other domestic affairs activities, including minority affairs, youth, the Federal Property Council and the Bicentennial. The first woman Cabinet member since Oveta Culp Hobby, Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in the Eisenhower Administration (1953-1955), Anne Armstrong was appointed on January 19, 1973, and stayed until December 1974 in the Ford Administration.

The first three files series, the Alphabetical File, Administrative File, and Subject File, reflect the activities of Anne Armstrong. The Alphabetical File contains correspondence of Anne Armstrong with Administration officials, Republican party members, and Texas and Louisiana political and personal acquaintances including Constance Armitage, Virginia Allan, Roger Ailes, Helen Deitrich Bentley, Arthur Burns, George Bush, Earl Butz, Julie Eisenhower, Barbara Franklin, the first women's recruiter in the White House and her successor, Nola Smith, Gerald and Betty Ford, Representative Martha Griffiths, Virginia Knauer, Gov. Ronald Reagan, Herbert Stein, and Senators John Stennis, John Tower and Strom Thurmond.

The Administrative File includes Anne Armstrong's correspondence with President Richard Nixon, Patrick Buchanan, Kenneth Cole, John Ehrlichman, Gen. Alexander Haig, Jerry Jones, Bruce Kehrli, David Parker and Ronald Ziegler. Among the subjects addressed in this file are the Administration's position on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), job appointments for women and Hispanics, beef prices, farm policies, and price controls.

The Subject File contains information concerning the organization, job appointments and local activities of the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration. The chronological file "Central Files-Nixon Papers-Miscellaneous Correspondence" documents a variety of activities in Anne Armstrong's office from late 1973-July 1974. There is also a large file of job applications and resumes and a collection of ERA endorsements from Presidents, Vice Presidents and senators.

The next five series primarily concern the work of Anne Armstrong's staff on women's issues. These include: the Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File; the Staff Miscellany File; the Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh and Jean Spencer File; the Vera Hirschberg File and the Office of Women's Programs File. Jill Ruckelshaus, wife of former Environmental Protection Agency Director and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, joined Anne Armstrong's office as a part-time Special Assistant from early 1973 to March 1974. A member of the National Women's Political Caucus, Jill Ruckelshaus was assisted by Vera Hirschberg, Director of the Office of Women's Programs, and served as an Administration liaison for women's issues. Her work was continued by Staff Assistants Dr. Jean Spencer, formerly of Vice President Agnew's office and Ruckelshaus' successor, Patricia Lindh, former Republican National Committeewoman from Louisiana. Patricia Lindh succeeded Anne Armstrong in December 1974 as Special Assistant to the President for Women. Vera Hirschberg's successor, Karen Keesling, also served in the Ford Administration.

The Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File contains a chronological file of correspondence from Anne Armstrong and her staff members Pamela Powell, David Wheat, Jill Ruckelshaus, Vera Hirschberg, Jean Spencer, Patricia Lindh, Karen Keesling, and Harriet Yedowski, executive secretary to Jill Ruckelshaus. Topics addressed in the chronological file include: the ERA, abortion, Phyllis Schafly, federal government programs for women, credit legislation and Watergate. The Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File also contains information about Anne Armstrong's and Jayne Spain's meetings with government agency heads concerning affirmative action programs for women; Anne Armstrong's meetings with the leaders of national, political, professional, religious and academic women's organizations; and the September 20, 1973 meeting of the Council of Economic Advisors Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Also found in this file are invitations, speeches, and travel arrangements of Jill Ruckelshaus.

The Staff Miscellany File materials may duplicate or supplement information in the Alphabetical File and the Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File mentioned above. Subjects include Administration and Federal government programs, ERA ratification, women's organizations, job appointments, invitations, the presentation of a Susan B. Anthony bust, sex discrimination, and Mrs. Pat Nixon's December 5, 1973 reception for a symposium on women by the Council of Economic Advisors and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Correspondents include: Anne Armstrong, staff members Jill Ruckelshaus, Vera Hirschberg, Pamela Powell and Beth Gordon; Barbara Franklin; Frederick Malek; Virginia Allan, State Department; Bernice Sanders, Women's Equity Action League; Carmen Maymi, Civil Service Commission; and Republican National Committee Chairman George Bush.

The Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh and Jean Spencer File contains information about Federal government affirmative action hiring programs, the Federal Women's Program, women Presidential appointees, the Commission on Civil Rights, International Women's Year, Hispanic Americans, domestic workers, women in the military and military academies, part-time employment, activities for Administration appointees' wives, sex discrimination, and Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, which mandated non-discriminatory education and faculty employment and promotion practices. Also of interest are chronological files of Inter/Inner Office Memos, 1971-1973, started by Barbara Franklin, and correspondence between Anne Armstrong and state legislators for and against the Equal Rights Amendment.

The Vera Hirschberg File provides information about Federal government affirmative action plans and visits to agency heads by Anne Armstrong and Jayne Spain. Other topics addressed include domestic workers, abortion, the Citizen's Advisory Committee on the Status of Women, Credit Legislation, Title IX, the House of Representatives Joint Economic Committee Hearing on the Economic Role of Women, maternity leaves, the minimum wage, the National Women's Party's Sewell-Belmont House, Social Security, women in military, women in the White House, women in military academies, and Anne Armstrong's meetings with leaders of women's organizations. A small amount of the correspondence of Vera Hirschberg's successor , Karen Keesling, is also found in the files.

The Office of Women's Programs File contains many of the same correspondents and subjects and serves as a supplement to the Jill Ruckelshaus, Jean Spencer and Patricia Lindh and Vera Hirschberg Files. The files include information about abortion, the Citizen's Advisory Committee on the Status of Women, Anne Armstrong's meetings and speeches, the role of Administration appointees' wives, the Bicentennial, child care, domestic workers, Barbara Franklin's correspondence, International Women's Year, Hispanic and women's mailing lists, the White House Fellows, women appointees, and the Council of Economic Advisors Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women and their joint efforts with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

The Barbara Franklin Reference File contains materials from the office of Barbara Franklin, Staff Assistant for Executive Manpower, under Fred Malek of the White House personnel office. As the most visible women's representative in the Administration prior to Anne Armstrong's appointment, Barbara Franklin recruited top-level women in the Administration and Federal Government, monitored government affirmative action plans, served as a liaison with women's organizations and promoted 1972 campaign. Many of these materials have been duplicated throughout the Anne Armstrong files.

The Office File sub-series of the Barbara Franklin Reference File contains a one-year update on Administration accomplishments since Barbara Franklin's appointment in April 1971. The file includes a proposed statement on the ERA, annotated by President Richard Nixon, White House press releases Presidential statements, and reasons for and against the Administration support of the ERA.

The first Subject File sub-series of the Barbara Franklin Reference File contains material concerning Presidential meetings and swearing-in ceremonies with women appointees, congratulatory telegrams, schedule proposals for the President and First Family and fact sheets. The files of Judith Kaufman, Franklin's assistant, contain the correspondence of Franklin, Kaufman and Judith Cole, who was responsible for the White House Talent Bank of women job candidates. An "Issues" file includes Administration policies on domestic issues such as aging, crime and the economy, and comments by Wilma Scott Heide, President of the National Organization for Women and Rep. Bella Abzug. There are also files on prominent women and political figures. Files on "Women-Publicity and Public Relations" concern the 1972 campaign.

The second Subject File sub-series in the Barbara Franklin Reference File includes a large newsclipping file on women. There are also materials on Administration directives, speeches, and government agency affirmative action policies for women.

The Outside Women's Organizations File contains correspondence from United States and international women's professional, religious, political and academic organizations. The files were originally started by Barbara Franklin's office in 1971 and updated by Patricia Lindh in 1974. Notable correspondents, whose materials can be found throughout the Anne Armstrong files, include Bernice Sandler of the Association of American Colleges and the Women's Equity Action League, Jacqueline Gutwillig of the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Margaret Belcher of the National Association of Negro Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Osta Underwood of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Wilma Scott Heide of the National Organization for Women, and Elizabeth Chittick of the National Women's Party. Also of interest is a letter from Pat Nixon (April 17, 1972) to Lorraine Beebe of the National Women's Political Caucus.

The Publications File includes printed materials, periodicals and statistical reports concerning women from state governments, the Senate, the Civil Service Commission, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor, the President's Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities, the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status of Women, the Republican National Committee, the American Enterprise Institute, the American Political Science Association and other organizations.

The briefing books file of staff member Helena E. "Beth" Gordon, Correspondence and Research Coordinator, contains notebooks and folders for Anne Armstrong's meetings of trips. Correspondents include: Fred Slight, Kathie Berger, David Wheat, Vera Hirschberg, Jean Spencer, and Pamela Powell of Anne Armstrong's staff, John Shales, John Mollering, William Timmons, Roy Ash, Leonard Garment, Kenneth Cole, and Republican National Committee officials Peter Roussel and George Bush. Subjects include state and local politics and Bicentennial activities (including American Indian Bicentennial activities in Oklahoma and Oregon), the Legacy of Parks programs, the economy, election reform, foreign affairs, Watergate, and Hispanic, youth and women's programs.

Further information about Anne Armstrong can be found in the White House Central Files Staff Member and Office Files of her staff members Pamela Powell, Fred Slight, and David Wheat. Files related to women's job appointments include the White House Special Files, Staff Member and Office Files of Frederick Malek and the White House Central Files, Staff Member and Office Files of Barbara Franklin, Nola Smith and David Smyth. Also of interest are the White House Central Files, Staff Member and Office Files of Herbert Stein (Council of Economic Advisors' studies and programs on the economic status of women), Charles Clapp (Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities), and Andre Buckels, Leonard Garment and Bradley Patterson (Bicentennial). The White House Central Files, Subject Files include FG 75 (American Revolution Bicentennial Administration), FG 90 (Commission on Civil Rights), FG 145 (Cabinet Committee on Opportunity for Spanish Speaking People), FG 147 (Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women), FG 221 (Task Force), and HU 2-5 (Human Rights-Women). The Gerald R. Ford Library contains the files of Anne Armstrong and the combined files of Patricia Lindh and Jeanne Holm, Special Assistants to the President for Women.

Series Description

Boxes:   1-4
Series:   Alphabetical File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1972-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, newsclippings, speeches, and resumes, concerning job appointments, invitations, the Republican National Committee, and Administration programs. Arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the correspondent's name, thereunder chronologically.

Boxes:   4-5
Series:   Administrative File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1973-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, newsclippings, and press releases concerning job appointments, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), price controls, federal property management, women, minority, and Hispanic programs, and the Bicentennial. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   5-10
Series:   Subject File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1973-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, resumes, form letters, meeting notes, speeches, reports, newsclippings and press releases. Topics include the Bicentennial, the ERA, job appointments, price controls, federal property management, and women, minority and Hispanic programs. Arranged alphabetically by subject, thereunder chronologically.

Boxes:   11-16
Series:   Staff Correspondence and Memoranda File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1973-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, reports, statistics, resumes, speeches, mailing lists, travel forms and telephone messages. Among the subjects in this series are Anne Armstrong's meetings with agency heads and leaders of women's organizations, Jill Ruckelshaus' speeches, job appointments, women's programs, the ERA, credit legislation and Watergate. Arranged alphabetically by subject, thereunder chronologically.

Boxes:   16-17
Series:   Staff Miscellany File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Correspondence, telegrams, newsclippings, printed materials and press releases concerning the ERA, women's organizations, programs and events, job appointments, sex discrimination, and Mrs. Pat Nixon's reception for a symposium on the economic status of women. Arranged chronologically.

Boxes:   18-23
Series:   Jill Ruckelshaus, Patricia Lindh and Jean Spencer File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, reports, newsclippings, press releases, press briefings, mailing lists, form letters and speeches, related to federal policies and congressional legislation on women's employment issues including military status, sex discrimination, credit and education. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   24-31
Series:   Vera Hirschberg File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, newsclippings, reports, and publications, concerning federal policies and congressional legislation on women's issues, including Anne Armstrong's affirmative action meetings with federal agency heads, the Citizen's Advisory Council on the Status of Women, and Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   32-38
Series:   Office of Women's Programs Files | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, speeches, reports, congressional testimony, lists, newsclippings, publications and press briefings concerning federal policies and congressional legislation on women's issues, notably the ERA, child care, credit, domestic workers and International Women's Year. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   39
Series:   Barbara Franklin Reference File: Office Files | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1972
Description:   Carbon copies of correspondence, memoranda, reports, speeches, and lists, telegrams and schedule proposals relating to the Administration's ERA position, Presidential statements, meetings with various women's organizations, and a first year progress report (April 1972) on Administration accomplishments for women. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   40-48
Series:   Barbara Franklin Reference File: Subject Files | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1972
Description:   Carbon copies and originals of correspondence and memoranda, fact sheets, press releases, policy statements, periodicals, and magazines, concerning women's issues, contacts with government officials and personnel, media, public figures and organization leaders, and domestic issues during the 1972 campaign. Several folders concerning Presidential meetings and schedules are followed by four files series: the office files of Franklin's assistant, Judith Moore Kaufman, Issues, Publications, and Miscellaneous VIP's. Arranged alphabetically by subject, thereunder chronologically.

Boxes:   49-57
Series:   Barbara Franklin Reference File: Subject Files | Folder Title List
Spans:   1970-1972
Description:   Newsclippings, correspondence, memoranda, briefing materials, reports, and press releases, concerning women's issues, affirmative action programs, legislation and Presidential directives. Three boxes of newsclippings and memoranda are followed by three files series: VIP-General Material, Presidential Orders & Acts, and U.S. Government Departments. Arranged thereunder alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   58-67
Series:   Outside Women's Organizations File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1971-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, periodicals, newsclippings, and press releases concerning American and international women's academic, professional and religious organizations. Arranged alphabetically by subject.

Boxes:   68-70
Series:   Publications File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1970-1974
Description:   Pamphlets, reports, books, magazines, periodicals, Senate hearings, speeches, books and membership directories from government and private sources on the status of women, women's employment, flexible hours, ethnic women and sports education. Arranged alphabetically by title or author, thereunder chronologically.

Boxes:   71-75
Series:   Beth Gordon Briefing Books File | Folder Title List
Spans:   1973-1974
Description:   Correspondence, memoranda, notes, schedules, invitations, programs, Bicentennial applications, maps, newsclippings and printed material used for Anne Armstrong's meetings and trips. Topics include state and local politics, the Bicentennial, the economy, the 1974 federal budget, the Federal Property Council and the Legacy of Parks programs, Watergate, and women's, Hispanic, and Youth programs.

Folder Title List

Available as a searchable Adobe Acrobat PDFpdf file.

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