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The Nixon Library has compiled the following list of references to the Silent Majority during the Nixon Administration.

On November 3, 1969, President Nixon gave a televised address stating his policy on the Vietnam War. The antiwar protest movement had staged the October Moratorium, a massive, coordinated day long protest of the war on October 15, 1969; calls to end the war quickly had become more prominent. In the speech, Nixon ran counter to the antiwar movement's vehemence. He emphasized peace with honor, Vietnamization, diplomatic negotiations, and troop withdrawals. At the end of the speech, Nixon asked for the support of the "great silent majority" of Americans. The administration received a tremendous outpouring of public support for his policy, including thousands of letters and telegrams delivered to the White House. The speech had an electoral impact as well. Because of the outpouring of support, this speech further coalesced, within the administration and the Republican Party, the sentiment that Republicans could achieve electoral realignment and a new Republican majority.

This subject guide seeks to list resources that show:

  • 1969 foreign policy analyses and options explored by the Nixon administration (primarily the National Security Files listings)
  • Aspects of the speech itself, the reaction to it, and its influence on Nixon (Subject Files, President's Office and Personal Files, many White House Tape conversations)
  • The administration's recognition of an electoral opportunity and moves to capitalize on the "silent majority" (Staff Member and Office Files)

The guide is organized by collections in the Nixon Presidential materials

Note: The following resources are meant to be a starting point for research and not a comprehensive list of materials on the subject. We encourage you to visit the Nixon Library.

Follow the links for information on:

White House Tapes

  • Select Conversations about the Silent Majority or the November 3, 1969 speech

    • Conversation Number (Location): 809-2 (Oval Office)
      Date: 10/28/1972
      Participants: Nixon, Haldeman, and Kissinger
      Summary: Includes a succinct summation of the nature of the speech in Presidential decision making and the policy motivations behind the November 3, 1969 speech.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 482-24 (Oval Office)
      Date: 4/19/1971
      Participants: Nixon and Haldeman
      Summary: Nixon recounts a meeting with Senator McClellan. He states again his belief in the existence of a large silent majority, and the need for the administration to "stir it up a lot."

    • Conversation Number (Location): 249-29 (Executive Office Building)
      Date: 4/15/1971
      Participants: Nixon and Haldeman
      Summary: Haldeman discusses an interview with Look magazine. He mentions that he emphasizes the difference between the head of state and political roles of Nixon. He lists the November 3rd speech as a point that is sometimes considered a political move, but also reflects the president evaluating the situation, choosing the best path for the country, and then exercising leadership by going to the public, explaining to them, and searching for understanding. At this point, the pubic showed a dramatic shift in public opinion in support of the President's leadership.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 720-19 (Oval Office)
      Date: 5/5/192
      Participants: Nixon, Haldeman, and Kissinger
      Summary: The three men discuss the rhetoric of the upcoming speech on May 9, 1972. Because of the strength of military action in the speech, the group agrees the speech does NOT need strong rhetoric. Unlike the November 3, 1969 speech where the lack of military action required a strong rhetoric, this May speech needs to have a tone that lets the military action speak for itself.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 469-9 (Oval Office)
      Date: 3/18/1971
      Participants: Nixon and Connally
      Summary: The November 3, 1969 speech as a point of leadership and clarity about the war to citizens. In Nixon's eyes, a speech the public should have had years before.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 477-13 (Oval Office)
      Date: 4/12/1971
      Participants: Nixon, Victor Lasky, and Pratt Lasky
      Summary: The conversation only contains a brief mention of the speech, but highlights how Nixon thought of the speech as a high point of both his domestic and international leadership.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 1-10 (White House Telephone)
      Conversation Date: 4/7/1971
      Participants: Nixon and Kissinger
      Summary: Kissinger congratulates Nixon on his recent Address to the Nation on April 7, 1971. They discuss the delivery of the speech in comparison to the November 3, 1969 speech and refer to how the April 7, 1971 speech can effect diplomatic peace negotiations.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 571-8 (Oval Office)
      Date: 9/13/1971
      Participants: Nixon and Haig
      Summary: Nixon and Haig discuss the situation in Vietnam. Nixon realizes the rare opportunity he had with the November 3rd speech, and the public's growing weariness of the war. Nixon comments, "We've gone to the well too many times now with regard to Vietnam. November 3, Cambodia, Laos. Laos is the last. I can't go and make another Nov. 3rd speech. The American people won't respond to that."

    • Conversation Number (Location): 559-23 (Oval Office)
      Date: 8/10/1971
      Participants: Nixon, Thomas R. Shepard, Jr., and Haldeman
      Summary: Nixon discusses the problems of the current American leader class. He sees the working class silent majority as large in numbers, supporters of the country and not represented in the leader class; they are a constituency he wants to cultivate.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 776-8 (Oval Office)
      Date: 9/14/1972
      Participants: Nixon, Ehrlichman, and Rockefeller
      Summary: The group strategizes how best to propel Nixon's legislative agenda. Nixon hopes for a strong win in 1972 to serve as a "New Majority" mandate and usher in a highly active 100 days for the administration at the start of the second term.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 781-32/782-1 (Oval Office)
      Date: 9/18/1972
      Participants: Nixon and Theodore White
      Summary: A long conversation that covers a variety of topics, but includes Nixon's reflections on his first term, plans for the second term, and his constituency.

    • Conversation Number (Location): 658-5 (Oval Office)
      Date: 1/27/1972
      Participants: Nixon and Scammon
      Summary: A long conversation about Nixon's administration with one of the authors of The Real Majority.

Textual Materials

  • White House Special Files: Staff Member and Office Files

    • Buchanan
      • Box 1, Chron File-September 1971 (Buchanan to Ehrlichman, Haldeman and Colson, September 23, 1971)
      • Box 2, Chron File-November 1972

    • Butterfield
      • Box 1, Alex Butterfield (Oct 1969)
      • Box 1, Alex Butterfield (Nov 1969)
      • Box 1, Alex Butterfield (Dec 1969)
      • Box 1, Alex Butterfield (Jan 1970)
      • Box 8, Memoranda Received Oct thru Dec 1969

    • Colson
      • Box 1, [Memoranda]-Briefing Memo to the Pres.
      • Box 1, [Memoranda]-HRH Memos 1969-1970 (complete) [2 of 3]
      • Box 20, [Meetings]-Hard Hats--Building and Construction [5/20/70]
      • Box 20, [Meetings]-Building and Construction Trades Council Mtg. with President, 5/26/70
      • Boxes 36-37, [Subject Files] Americans for Winning the Peace [8 folders]
      • Box 39, [Subject Files] Blue Collar
      • Box 69, [Subject Files] Hard Hats--Building and Construction Trades
      • Box 88, [Subject Files] National Black Silent Majority
      • Box 112, [Subject Files] Silent Majority Organization [2 folders]
      • Box 116, [Subject Files] Tell It to Hanoi
      • Box 123, [Subject Files] Vietnam--Various Groups [1]--McGovern-Hatfield Vote Count
      • Box 123, [Subject Files] Vietnam--Various Groups [1]--Americans for Winning the Peace
      • Box 126, [Chronological Files] November 1969
      • Box 126, [Chronological Files] December 1969

    • Dent
      • Box 1, 1969 Ehrlichman Memos (Safire to Ehrlichman, July 17, 1969)
      • Box 2, MEMOS TO THE PRESIDENT 1969 [1 of 3]
      • Box 6, 1969 Republican National Committee [2 folders]
      • Boxes 6 & 7, 1969 Republican National Committee 2 [2 folders]
      • Box 8, 1970 Middle America [2 folders]
      • Box 11, 1969 Haldeman Planning Group

    • Ehrlichman
      • Box 3, 1969 Meetings with President
      • Box 30, 360 [Books] (Safire to Ehrlichman, July 25, 1969 & Mitchell to Ehrlichman, July 29, 1969)

    • Haldeman
      • Box 40, H Notes--July-Dec. '69 [Oct.-Dec. 1969] Part II
      • Box 41, H Notes--Jan.-March '70 [Jan. 1,-Feb. 20, 1970] Part I
      • Box 42, H Notes--July-September '70 [Aug. 7-Sept. 30, 1970] Part II
      • Box 53, Memos/Alex Butterfield (October 1969)
      • Box 53, Memos/Jeb Magruder (September 1969)
      • Box 54, Memos/Alex Butterfield (November 1969)
      • Box 54, Memos/Jeb Magruder (November 1969)
      • Box 61, HRH - July-August, 1970 Staff Memos - Cole-D (Colson to Haldeman, July 28, 1970)
      • Box 65, HRH-Staff Memos-Haldeman--October 1970 - A-Chotiner (Chotiner to Haldeman, October 31, 1970)
      • Box 117, Campaign Organization A
      • Box 134, Poll Information [1]
      • Box 134, Gallup Poll
      • Box 134, Poll File
      • Box 139, HR Haldeman Memoranda for President May 1970 (Huston to Harlow, Dent, Nofziger, Chotiner, Haldeman, and Ehrlichman, May 13, 1970)
      • Box 208, [Larry Higby Chron Files - Alpha Name Chron] Alex Butterfield-Chron November [1969]
      • Box 229, P Memos 1969
      • Box 342, Political (1972 Election) General ("The Elections of '70 and '72," unsigned, n.d.)
      • Box 375, The Public Appraises--The Nixon Administration and Key Issues (Nov/Dec 1969)
      • Box 376, Middle America in Political Perspective-A Proposed Survey of Middle-Income Voters Attitudes Toward the Nixon Administration

    • President's Office Files
      • Box 3, President's Handwriting, September 1969
      • Box 3, President's Handwriting, October 1 thru 15, 1969
      • Box 3, President's Handwriting, October 16 thru 31, 1969
      • Box 3, President's Handwriting, November 1 thru 15, 1969
      • Box 3, President's Handwriting, November 16 thru 30, 1969
      • Box 4, President's Handwriting, December 1 thru 15 , 1969
      • Box 4, President's Handwriting, December 16 thru 30, 1969
      • Box 4, President's Handwriting, January 1 thru 15, 1970 (Dent to Nixon, January 13, 1970)
      • Box 8, President's Handwriting, November 1970 (Moynihan to Nixon, November 13, 1970)
      • Box 31, News Summaries, October 1969
      • Box 31, News Summaries, November 1969
      • Box 79, Memoranda for the President, Beginning November 2, 1969
      • Box 80, Memoranda for the President, May 24, 1970
      • Box 90, Memoranda for the President--Beginning November 12, [1972]
      • Box 100, Chronological File--7/1/69-12/31/69

    • President's Personal Files
      • Box 1, [Memoranda from the President, 1969-74] Memos--October 1969
      • Box 1, [Memoranda from the President, 1969-74] Memos--November 1969
      • Box 1, [Memoranda from the President, 1969-74] Memos--December 1969
      • Box 2, [Memoranda from the President, 1969-74] Memos--November 1970 (Nixon to Haldeman, Nov. 30, 1970)
      • Box 5, [Name/Subject File, 1969-74] ABM (Kissinger to Nixon, April 8, 1970)
      • Box 6, [Name/Subject File, 1969-74] Campaign of 1970 (Buchanan to Nixon, August 24, 1970, annotated by Nixon)
      • Box 12, [Name/Subject File, 1969-74] RN Notes on NSC-Vnam Briefing, [n.d.]
      • Box 52, [President's Speech File] November 3, 1969-Vietnam Speech [2 folders]
      • Box 53, [President's Speech File] November 3, 1969-Vietnam Speech [3 folders]
  • White House Special Files: Subject Files (Confidential Files)

    • Box 42, [CF], ND 18/CO 165 [Vietnam] 1 Aug 1969 - 28 Feb 1970 [1969-70]
    • Box 60, [CF], SP 3-56 Nationwide TV and Radio Address re: Vietnam - DC, 11/3/69 [1969-70]

  • White House Central Files: Staff Member and Office Files

    • Butterfield
      • Box 1, Business Letters Received '69-'70 [2] [Sept 9, 1969-Jan 4, 1969]
      • Box 1, Silent Majority

    • Garment
      • Box 1, [White House Memos]-October 1969
      • Box 155, [Alpha Subject Files] Vietnam [CFOA 10180]

  • White House Central Files: Subject Files

    • Box 46, EX, BE 5 National Economy: January-June 25, 1969 [1 of 23]
    • Box 46, EX, BE 5 National Economy: June 26-August 1969 [2 of 23]
    • Boxes 106-113, SP 3-56: Nationwide T.V. and Radio Address Re: Vietnam at the Wash. Hilton Hotel 11/3/69
      Boxes contain executive [EX] and general [GEN] responses to the speech

  • National Security Files

    • National Security Council (NSC) Files Collection
      • Vietnam Subject Files
        • Box 70, Discussion on Vietnam in the Cabinet Room 9:30 a.m. Sept. 12, 1969
        • Box 74, VIETNAM: (General Files)-Jan 69 - Aug 69 [2 folders]
        • Box 74, VIETNAM: (General Files)-Sep 69 - Nov 69 [2 folders]
        • Box 74, Vietnam Memo's to the Pres. for NSC 1969
        • Box 78, VIETNAM Speech November 3, 1969 [3 folders]
        • Box 78, VIETNAM Memo's to Pres./HAK - Lodge
        • Box 78, VIETNAM Memo's on Bunker to the Pres./HAK thru Oct 69
        • Box 79, Drafts of President's November 3, 1969 VN Speech [2 folders]
        • Box 79, Notes of President's November 3, 1969 Speech
        • Box 79, Memos's, Letter of Exchange and Reaction to President's Nov 3, 1969 Speech [2 folders]
        • Box 89, Top Secret/Sensitive Vietnam Contingency Planning Henry A. Kissinger, Oct 2, 1969 [2 folders]
        • Box 99, North Vietnam Contingency Plan-Oct - Dec 1969
        • Box 122, Prize Bull Airstrike on NVN-OCt 2, 1969
        • Box 122, Vietnam Planning - Contingency Planning-Oct 2, 1969
        • Box 123, Vietnam - Operation Pruning Knife [2 folders]

      • Vietnam Country Files
        • Box 139, VIETNAM Vol. XI - A Memos & Misc.-10/1/69-10/16/69
        • Box 140, VIETNAM - Memos & Misc. Vol. XI - B October 17 - 31, 1969 [2 folders]
        • Box 140, VIETNAM Vol. XII November 1 - 15, 1969 [2 folders]
        • Box 140, VIETNAM Vol. XII - 2 November 15 - 30, 1969

      • Paris Talks/Meetings
        • Box 175, Vietnam - Statements by North VN and NLF Delegates in Paris on American Domestic Criticism of the War October-November 1969
        • Box 178, PARIS MEETINGS, STATE NODIS CABLES/HABIB CALLS October 1969
        • Box 178, PARIS MEETINGS, STATE NODIS CABLES/HABIB CALLS November 1969

      • Subject Files
        • Box 334, Items to Discuss with the President, 8/13/1969-12/30/1969
        • Box 339, Republican Leadership Briefing by HAK, October 28, 1969
        • Box 339, HAF BACKGROUNDER (HAK's World Wrap Up)-December 18, 1969
        • Box 352, Schedule of Significant Military Exercises, vol. I
        • Box 357, MORATORIUM October 15, 1969
        • Box 357, MORATORIUM November 15, 1969

      • President's Trip Files
        • Box 489, Dobrynin/Kissinger 1969 [part 1]
        • Box 489, Dobrynin/Kissinger 1969 [part 2]

      • For the President's Files (Winston Lord) - China Trip/Vietnam
        • Box 863, CAMP DAVID MEMCONS, 1969-1970

      • Alexander M. Haig Chronological File
        • Box 958, Haig Chron October 1-15, 1969 [2 folders]
        • Box 959, Haig Chron October 16-31, 1969 [2 folders]
        • Box 959, Haig Chron November 1969 [3 folders]

      • Alexander M Haig Special File
        • Box 1008, Haig's Vietnam File - Vol. 2 April-October 1969 [1 of 2]

      • Presidential/HAK Memocons
        • Box 1026, MemCons - Presidential/HAK June-December 1969 [1 of 2]

      • Lake Chron Files
        • Box 1046, T. LAKE CHRON October 1969
        • Box 1046, T. LAKE CHRON November 1969
        • Box 1047, TL INFO August 1969-June 1970 [2 folders]
        • Box 1047, (T. Lake - Miscellaneous Material) September 1969-January 1970
        • Box 1047, TONY LAKE CHRON FILE June 1969-May 1970 [3 folders]
        • Box 1048, TONY LAKE CHRON FILE June 1969-May 1970 [3 folders]

    • Henry A. Kissinger Office Files Collection
      • Box 106, S, Mister Vol. 1 [2 folders]
      • Box 148, State/WH Relationship Vol. 1 January 28 - October 31, 1969
      • Box 148, State/WH Relationship Vol. 2 November 1, 1969 - January 31, 1970

    • NSC Institutional Files
      • National Security Council Meetings
        • H-019, NSC Meeting, Vietnam Alternatives 1/25/69
        • H-021, NSC Meeting, Vietnam 3/28/69 [2 folders]

      • Senior Review Group Meetings
        • H-039, Review Group Vietnam 7/10/69 [2 parts]

      • National Security Study Memorandums
        • H-122 thru H-126, NSSM 1 - Situation in Vietnam
        • H-140, NSSM 29 - Papers for Vietnam Negotiations
        • H-142, NSSM 36 - Vietnamizing the War
        • H-142 thru H-143, NSSM 37 - Vietnam

      • National Security Decision Memorandums
        • H-209, NSDM 9 - Vietnam
        • H-211, NSDM 24 - Vietnam

Audiovisual Materials

  • Audio Collections

    • Main Audio File Collection [See Also: Main Audio File Collection Finding Aid]

      Title/Event: "A New Alignment for American Unity: A RICHARD M. NIXON NETWORK RADIO SPEECH"
      File Designator/ID No./Format: SR # 680516 AT
      Date: May 16, 1968
      Topic/Subject: Nixon suggests the emergence of a New Majority composed of traditional Republicans, "New Liberals," the New South, "black militants" and the "Silent Center."
      Producer: The Nixon-Agnew Campaign Committee
      Restriction(s): PUBLIC DOMAIN
      Provenance: The Donated Papers of Gordon Vander Till
      Time: 13:12
      Remarks: Recorded at 7.5 ips on one mil mylar stock.



    • White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Sound Recordings Descriptions [See Also: WHCA Sound Recordings Finding Aid]

      File/ID Number: P-691101
      Date: 11/3/1969
      Tape Contents: Televised address re Vietnam
      Program Time: 31:51



  • Motion Film Collections

    • Main Motion Film File [See Also: Main Motion Film File Finding Aid]

      Title/Event: "The Silent Majority"
      File Designator/ID No./Format: MFF MPR# 149 MPPCA
      Names/Participants: Pollster George Gallup; Vice President Humphrey and Richard M. Nixon
      Date: 1968
      Topic/Subject: Description of the attitudes of the ‘silent majority’ towards the war in Vietnam and the anti-war demonstrations
      Producer: U.S. Information Agency (USIA)
      Restriction(s): Copyright.
      Time: 16 m
      Remarks: Available on videocassette.
      Title/Event: "Nixon on Vietnam"
      File Designator/ID No./Format: MFF MPR# 339 MPPCA
      Names/Participants: Richard M. Nixon
      Date: November 3, 1969
      Topic/Subject: Address to the nation on the war in Vietnam
      Producer: unknown
      Restriction(s):
      Time:
      Remarks: Available on videocassette.
      Title/Event: "President Nixon's Vietnam Speech November 3, 1969"
      File Designator/ID No./Format: MFF MPR# 372 MPPCA
      Names/Participants: Richard M. Nixon
      Date: November 3, 1969
      Topic/Subject: The President discusses the administration's policies toward the war in Vietnam.
      Producer: Wolper Productions (L.A., CA.) for the Committee to Re-elect the President
      Restriction(s):
      Time:
      Remarks:



  • Video Collections

    • White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Videotape Descriptions  [See Also: WHCA Videotape Finding Aid]

      File/ID#: WHCA VTR# 3485 Format: 2 inch
      Title/Event: President's Speech on Vietnam w/Commentary
      Date: 11/3/1969 Time of Day: 2130
      Source: WTOP
      Producer: CBS
      Restriction(s): COPYRIGHT on network commentary
      Program Time: 1:00

      File/ID#: WHCA VTR# 3486 Format: 2 inch
      Title/Event: President's Speech on Vietnam w/Commentary
      Date: 11/3/1969 Time of Day: 2130
      Source: WMAL
      Producer: ABC
      Restriction(s): COPYRIGHT on network commentary
      Program Time: 1:00

      File/ID#: WHCA VTR# 3487 Format: 1 inch A
      Title/Event: President's Speech on Vietnam w/Commentary
      Date: 11/3/1969 Time of Day: 0700
      Source: WRC
      Producer: NBC
      Restriction(s): COPYRIGHT on network commentary
      Program Time: 1:00
      Remarks: available only on one inch "Type A"

      File/ID#: WHCA VTR# 3491 Format: 2 inch
      Title/Event: "Today" w/discussion on Nixon Vietnam speech AND interview w/David Brinkley
      Date: 11/4/1969 Time of Day: 0700
      Source: WRC
      Producer: NBC
      Restriction(s): COPYRIGHT
      Program Time: 1:00

      File/ID#: WHCA VTR# 3492 Format: 2 inch
      Title/Event: "Today" w/discussion on Nixon Vietnam speech AND interview with David Brinkley
      Date: 11/4/1969 Time of Day: 0800
      Source: WRC
      Producer: NBC
      Restriction(s): COPYRIGHT
      Program Time: 1:00



  • White House Photo Office Still Picture Roll Descriptions

    Roll Number: 2328
    Film Size: 35mm
    Film Type: Kodak Tri X Pan 800
    No. of Images: 20
    Color/B&W: B&W
    Photographer: Kightlinger, Jack
    Date1: 11/3/1969
    Event1: Nixon prepares to give his radio and television speech about Vietnam.
    Participants1: Nixon, press corps members

    Roll Number: 2334
    Film Size: 35mm
    Film Type: Kodak Tri X Pan 800
    No. of Images: 34
    Color/B&W: B&W
    Photographer: Knudsen, Robert L.
    Date1: 11/4/1969
    Event1: Nixon seated at his desk, which is overflowing with responses to his address on Vietnam, first with Haldeman, then George Romney, and then unidentified other persons.
    Participants1: Nixon, Haldeman, George Romney, unidentified persons
    Frames Selected: None
    Roll Number: 2335
    Film Size: 35mm
    Film Type: Kodak Tri X Pan 800
    No. of Images: 15
    Color/B&W: B&W
    Photographer: Knudsen, Robert L.
    Date1: 11/4/1969
    Event1: Nixon seated at his desk, which is overflowing with responses to his address on Vietnam, first with Haldeman, then George Romney and unidentified other persons.
    Participants1: Nixon, Haldeman, George Romney, unidentified persons

    Roll Number: 2341
    Film Size: 35mm
    Film Type: Kodak Tri X Pan 800
    No. of Images: 14
    Color/B&W: B&W
    Photographer: Kightlinger, Jack
    Date1: 11/3/1969
    Event1: 2 A/3-6A/7: Head and shoulders shots of Nixon giving his speech on Vietnam.
    Participants1: Nixon
    Date2: 11/5/1969
    Event2: 8A/9-16A/17: Judy Agnew at Navy Wives Club benefit.
    Participants2: Judy Agnew, unidentified Navy wives, aides

    Roll Number: 2345
    Film Size: 35mm
    Film Type: Kodak Tri X Pan 800
    No. of Images: 17
    Color/B&W: B&W
    Photographer: Atkins, Oliver
    Date1: 11/5/1969
    Event1: Agnew and several Cabinet members viewing responses to Nixon's Vietnam speech piled on the president's desk.
    Participants1: Agnew, Moynihan, George Shultz, George Romney, Clifford Harding, Robert Finch, David Kennedy, Walter Hickel, unidentified man

Additional Resources

  • Public Papers of the President
    • President Nixon's public messages, statements, speeches, and news conference remarks can be found in the Public Papers of the President.

      The Public Papers are available online:   Search   |   Browse

    • 1969

      425 – Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam, November 3, 1969

  • Published Materials
    • The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, the Complete Multimedia Edition. Santa Monica, CA: Sony Electronic Publishing, 1994.
    • Hersch, Seymour. The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. New York: Summit Books, 1983.
    • Kimball, Jeffrey. Nixon's Vietnam War. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1998.
    • Kimball, Jeffrey. The Vietnam War Files: Uncovering the Secret History of Nixon-Era Strategy. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2004.
    • Kissinger, Henry. The White House Years . Boston: Little, Brown, & Co, 1979.
    • Mason, Robert. Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
    • Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard M. Nixon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.
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